Mind Maps of Hawaii
Here in Mind Maps of Hawaii, you’ll find a collection of what I call “WisdomMaps” on the history and culture of Hawaii. WisdomMaps organize our subject in a multimedia-rich environment that lets you immerse yourself in our story in ways that go way beyond the text.
ʻEliʻeli kūlana o ʻĀinaʻike. – Profound is the nature of ʻĀinaʻike. (Refers to a person respected for the depth of his knowledge.)
The Hawaiian Islands were first settled by Polynesians sometime between 124 and 1120 AD, and Hawaii remained isolated from the rest of the world for at least 500 years.
Captain James Cook, “England’s Great Navigator”, was the first European to arrive, in 1778. However, the Spanish captain Ruy López de Villalobos was the first European to see the islands, in 1542. The Spanish named these islands “Isla de Mesa, de los Monjes y Desgraciada” for their location on the route linking Manila in the Philippines with Acapulco in Mexico, both of which were part of New Spain.
Within five years after Cook’s arrival, European cannons and guns helped Kamehameha I conquer and unify the islands for the first time. He established the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1795 and the House of Kamehameha that lasted until the death of Kamehameha V in 1872 and Lunalilo in 1874. The kingdom grew prosperous and important for its sugar and strategic location in the Pacific, but King Kalakaua compromised Hawaiian sovereignty by granting the United States the use of Pearl Harbor for a naval base in return for duty-free access to the American sugar market.
Immigration began almost immediately after Cook’s arrival, led by Protestant missionaries. Large companies descended from these missionaries established plantations to grow sugar. With the Hawaiian race dying, there was no labor for the plantations. To answer the need, waves of permanent immigrants came from Japan, China, and the Philippines to work in the cane fields. The government of Japan assisted its own people in their emigration to Hawaii, and Japanese came to comprise about 25 percent of Hawaii’s population by 1896. The Hawaiian population had succumbed to disease brought by the Europeans (particularly smallpox), and declined from about 1 million in the 1770s to just 60,000 in the 1850s to 24,000 in 1920. Today, there are only about 7,000 pure-blood Hawaiians remaining, but some 300,000 part-Hawaiians in Hawaii and more than a half-million nation-wide are very much alive and well.
The Bayonet Constitution, written at the behest of insurrectionists, severely curtailed the power of King David Kalākaua, and employed excessive property and income requirements to disenfranchise the rights of many Native Hawaiians and immigrants to vote. This gave a sizable advantage to the plantation oligarchy. Queen Liliuokalani tried to restore her royal powers in 1893 but was placed under house arrest by local politicians with help from the U.S. Consul Stevens, the captain and crew of the USS Boston anchored in Honolulu Harbor, and a local military force. Against the wishes of the Queen and (with near unanimity) opposed by Hawaiians, the Republic of Hawaii was proclaimed, and its government agreed to join the United States in 1898 as the Territory of Hawaii. In 1959, the islands became the state of Hawaii.
WisdomMaps: The Future of the Past
Here’s our assortment… please enjoy! When you’re done perusing a map, just close it, and you’ll be back here.
Hawaii: A World Apart | Ancient Hawaii: Culture • Society: Origins • Ahupua’a • Konohiki | Religion | Kamehameha Dynasty: Chiefs and Rulers • Captain Cook • Kingdom of Hawaii • Kamehameha I • Kamehameha II • Kalakaua: Bayonet Constitution • Lili’uokalani: Wilcox Rebellion • Overthrow | Modern Hawaii • Statehood | Sovereignty
Be sure to have a look at Mind Maps of the Pacific as well!
P.S. If you have a taste for history, we invite you to our companion site WisdomMaps.info. It’s history as you’ve never seen it!